Physicochemical Properties and Levels of Selected Trace Metals in Honey from North Gondar, Ethiopia
In this study, physicochemical parameters and metal concentration of honey samples were collected from Beyeda, Dabat, Debark and Jan Amora Districts in North Gondar Administrative Zone and assessed. The mean values of physicochemical parameters were: moisture as 16.0‒22.9% (w/w), ash content 0.48-0.74%, the electrical conductivity (EC) as 0.33‒0.40 mS/cm and the pH as 3.59–4.65. Except the moisture content of honey from Beyeda and Debark districts which slightly exceeded the allowable limits, all quality parameters were found within the acceptable range given by Codex Alimentarius. For metal analysis, using flame atomic absorption spectrometer, honey samples were digested in HNO3 and H2O2 (1:1, v,v) at temperature of 220 oC for 1:40 h. The mean concentrations (μg/g) of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were in the range of 0.40‒1.62, 5.82‒15.31, 0.20‒1.41, 1.90‒6.75 and 3.30‒7.45, respectively. Among the physicochemical parameters investigated, a positive correlation was obtained between ash content, pH and EC. However, moisture content showed a negative correlation with ash content, pH, and EC. Copper, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn showed positive correlation to each other. Analysis of variance at 95% confidence level indicated that there were only significant variations for Cu and Zn.