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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • Ensure your paper is blind for review. That is, remove author and institution information from the cover page as well as from the acknowledgments section
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Instructions to Authors

Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences (EJHBS) is an official biannual publication of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.

EJHBS publishes papers dealing with basic and applied research in the areas of health and biomedical sciences. The following types of papers are included in EJHBS: (1) original articles, (2) brief communications, (3) reviews, (4) case report, and (5) letters to the editor. In principle, a review article should not generally exceed 6000 words, and an original research article should also not exceed 4000 words, including the abstract, tables, references, and other appendices. A short/brief communication and a case report should not exceed 2000 words, including abstract, tables, and references. Letters should be brief and to the point; tables can be included, but graphs and illustrations will not normally be used. References must be kept to a minimum.

Submission: Manuscripts are accepted from any individual/institution.  Manuscript with a complete set of figures and tables, should be submitted through the online submission system.  The corresponding author should indicate in a covering letter:

(1) that the manuscript is being submitted for consideration for publication in EJHBS

(2) that a manuscript with substantially the same content has not been submitted or published elsewhere

(3) that all the authors have made contributions to the study described in the manuscript and are responsible for its content (4) that all authors have approved the manuscript.

The Journal also accepts manuscripts submitted by e-mail to

The manuscript should be sent to: The Editorial Office, Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Manuscripts in English are accepted. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in English. Each manuscript will be reviewed by two or more members of the Editorial Board or ad hoc referees for its acceptability in terms of scientific quality and originality. The Journal reserves the privilege of returning the manuscript to the author for revision to make it suitable for publication in the journal.

Form of Manuscript: Manuscripts should be written concisely and typed on one side of white paper (A4 size), with margins of at least 2.5 cm. Type manuscripts double-spaced throughout, including references, tables, figure legends and footnotes. All pages must be numbered consecutively. Most manuscripts of original reports are divided into the following sections in this order: Title page, including the title, the author(s) and affiliation(s), Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and References.

Title page: The title should contain the fewest words that adequately describe the work. The authors' names should be typed in full. The department and institution where the investigation was made, including the complete postal address, should be named. The telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address (if available) of the corresponding author should be indicated.

Abstract:  Manuscripts of original papers must begin with a structured abstract of not more than 300 words. It should state the background and purposes of the study or investigation; materials and methods (basic procedures on selection of study subjects; observational and analytical methods); results (main findings); and conclusions.


Keywords: Below the abstract, 3 to 5 key words or short phrases that should be sufficient to describe the content of the text should be provided.

Introduction: The introduction outlines the purpose, scope and methods of the investigation and its relation to other work in the same field.

Materials and Methods: This section should clearly describe the selection of the observational subjects; the methods, apparatus (names and addresses of manufacturers in parenthesis), and procedures; references to established methods; references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence interval). When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or the country.


Results: Present results of your study in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all data in the tables or illustrations, or both: emphasize or summarize only important observations.


Discussion: Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and conclusions that follow from them. Highlight the important/major findings first, then highlight the less-important findings. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction section or the Results section. Include in the Discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study, but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.


Acknowledgements: One or more statement(s) should specify: (a) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chairman; (b) acknowledgements of technical help; (c) acknowledgements of financial and material support, specifying the nature of support; (d) financial or other relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.

Tables and figures: All tabular materials, flow charts, etc. should be typed on separate pages of the same size as the text and should be intelligible by themselves without reference to the text. Headings should be concise, clearly present the subject matter. Footnotes to the tables should be placed below the table and designated by superscripts 1, 2, 3.... . Graphs, diagrams, drawings and photographs are considered figures. The original drawings should be no larger than 16 x 22 cm. All drawings must be made with black drawing ink on tracing paper suitable for direct photocopy. Either the original or glossy prints thereof are acceptable. Photographs should be sharp glossy prints with high contrast, and three sets of such prints should be submitted.

Tables and figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals, respectively, in the order of appearance in the text. They should be cited in the text as, for example, Table 3 or Fig. 3.

Abbreviations and symbols: Only standard abbreviations should be used. Abbreviations of biological terms, such as culture media, reagents, or laboratory methods, should not be used unless they are well established or they are of advantage to the reader. Such abbreviations should be defined on their first appearance in the text.

Biological nomenclature: Scientific names of animals, plants and microorganisms should be in accordance with the International Codes. The scientific names in the manuscript should be in italics. The generic name is written in full in the title, on its first appearance in the text, and in the summary. Elsewhere, the initial letter of the generic name may be used if no confusion results.

Chemical nomenclature: The nomenclature of chemical compounds should agree with indexes of Chemical Abstracts.

References: References should be cited by number in parentheses in the text in order of their appearance and listed in numerical order at the end of the manuscript. List all names of authors. References to journals and books should follow “Vancouver Style” and be written as in the following examples:

  1. Kassu A, Fujino F, Matsuda M, Nishizawa M, Ota F, Sugiura. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in antiretroviral naïve patients in north Ethiopia. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 2007; 23: 564-568.
  2. Zhang Y, Telenti A. Genetics of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. p. 235-253. In Hatfull G F, Jacob WR, (ed.), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, 2000, ASM Press, Washington, D. C.
  3. Assefa S, Berhan W. Health laboratory quality assurance, 2007, Master Printing Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Unpublished data or personal communications should not be included in the reference list but may be cited in the text, with permission for personal communications.

Short/Brief communications: Papers in brief form will be printed in Short/Brief Communications. They should not exceed ten double spaced pages including figures and tables. Subdivisions of the text by headings should be avoided except for Abstract and References.

Reviews: The Review is intended for review articles dealing with current as well as historical progress made in research and policy making in health and biomedical sciences. Teaching articles and reviews may be submitted by invitation of the editorial board.

Case report: Papers dealing with specific clinical observations will be considered and published as case reports.

Categorization: Categorization of each paper is finally decided by the editor-in-chief.

Letters to the Editor: Letters will provide opinions concerning the articles published in EJHBS. The authors of the original articles will be invited to respond to the letters commenting on their manuscript. The letter should state the title of the article and the volume and number in which the article was published. Letters should not be divided into sections, nor should they contain a summary, figures or tables. References (not more than 5) may be included.

Conflict of interest: Authors are responsible for declaring any conflict of interest related to the submitted work. The source of funding for the research work should be acknowledged.


Authorship: As recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, “All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take official responsibility for the content. Authorship credits should be based only on substantial contributions to 1) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; and to 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on 3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions 1, 2, and 3 must all be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship.”

Submission of manuscript on a disk after final acceptance: Manuscripts to be submitted should be hard copies typed on A4 size paper. After being accepted, the final version in a CD and one hard copy or the soft copy (by e-mail to should be submitted. Proof reading must be done carefully by the author.

Free copies/Reprints: Three free copies of the journal will be provided to the corresponding author for each paper published. Additional copies can be purchased from the Editorial Office.

Copyright: It is a condition of publication that authors transfer copyright of their articles including abstracts to College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar. Authors may use their article elsewhere after publication provided that proper acknowledgment is given to the Journal as the original source of publication.


Manuscript review proceduresThe procedures for manuscript review include:

1) Within one week of receipt of a manuscript, one of the Editorial Board members  will review it  in reference to i) conformity with the Journal’s “instruction to authors”, ii) relevance of the article to the readers of EJHBS, iii) clarity of presentation, and iv) its scientific and ethical acceptability. The Editorial Board has three options: accept manuscript for external review, return to author for revision, or reject it. A manuscript not accepted by a board member is blindly reviewed by another board member. If not accepted by both, the manuscript is rejected by the Editorial Board. Decision will be made by the suggestion of a third Editorial Board member if the decisions of first two do not concur.

2) Once accepted for external review, the Editorial Board identifies reviewers with appropriate expertise. Those reviewers living in Ethiopia will be sent the manuscript, a pre-stamped post card (indicating receipt of and availability to review the manuscript), and a pre-stamped envelope in which to return the manuscript. Reviewers living outside Ethiopia will receive a pre-addressed but unstamped postcard and envelope. Reviewers will be asked to review and return manuscripts within 3 weeks of their receipt. Reviewers have few options; accept, accept with major revision, accept with minor revision, or reject.

3) Manuscripts accepted with major revision will be returned to the corresponding author. Authors will be given four weeks to respond to the external reviewers’ comments, make necessary changes and return the manuscript to the Editorial Office.

4) Manuscripts with minor revisions will be cleared by the Editorial Board and accepted for publication. Those with major revisions will be returned to external reviewers and follow the procedures as outlined for the initial review.

Orginal Articles

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