Editorial Policies

The following policies apply to the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences.  Please read these policies in full before submitting your article, to ensure you’ve correctly followed all the requirements.

Open Access Policies

All articles published by EJHBS are made freely accessible online after publication. No subscription charges are required to access the full-text articles.

Editorial Board

Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical sciences shall have an office at the Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar. The development of the Journal shall consist of the following structure, members, and contents: Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Editorial Manager, Editorial Board, National and international Editorial Consultants (Advisory Board Members). The editorial office team comprises the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, Managing Editor, and the Editorial Officer.

Manuscript Submission

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines. The submission has not been previously published, nor submitted before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor). Ensure your paper is blind for review. That is, remove author and institution information from the cover page as well as from the acknowledgments section. However, in a separate word document, please make sure to submit the cover page including the Authors' details (e.g., Title, name of each author in order of their contribution, Affiliation, email addresses of each author, and name of the corresponding author).

The submission file should be in Microsoft Word. The text shall be 1.5 spaced; 12-point font; Times New Roman; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

The corresponding author should submit a signed covering letter along with the submitted manuscript. In the cover letter, the author should indicate the title of the manuscript, explanation of any conflict of interest, justifications of submission to EJHBS, a statement that submission is sole to this journal, novelty, and research highlights. The Journal accepts manuscripts submitted through the online submission system. The Journal also accepts manuscripts submitted by e-mail to ejhbs@uog.edu.et. Manuscripts in English are accepted. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in English. Prior to starting the peer review process, each manuscript will be reviewed by the editor-in-chief or section editors or guest editors’ referees for its acceptability in terms of scientific quality and originality. The Journal reserves the privilege of returning the manuscript to the author for revision to make it suitable for publication in the journal.

Peer Review Process

Peer review is the system used to assess the quality of a manuscript before it is published. Independent researchers in the relevant research area assess submitted manuscripts for originality, validity, and significance to help editors determine whether the manuscript should be published in their journal.

Peer review is the evaluation of the quality of a manuscript by two or more researchers with similar competencies as the producers of the work. In EJHBS, two or more independent researchers in their field of expertise assess the submitted manuscripts for originality, validity, implication, and ethical acceptance to help the editorial team determine whether the manuscript should be published in the journal.

Manuscripts submitted to EJHBS are evaluated by the editorial team and/or peer reviewers. All published articles are peer-reviewed. The editorial team and Editorial Board are responsible for the overall editorial process of the journal.  EJHBS publishes articles focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of health and biomedical sciences. The journal does not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a research study or its likely impact. The studies must have scientifically sound research questions, methods, ethics, and analysis.

Within one week of receipt of a manuscript, one of the assigned editors will review it in reference to conformity with the Journal’s “instruction to authors”, the relevance of the article to the readers of EJHBS, clarity of presentation, and its scientific and ethical acceptability. The editor has three options: accept the manuscript for peer review, return to the author for revision, or reject it.  Once the manuscript is accepted for peer review, the editor identifies at least two reviewers with appropriate expertise. The reviewers will be asked their agreement to review in one week and return the review reports on the assigned manuscripts within two weeks of their receipt. The reviewers are expected to indicate their recommendation as accept without revision, accept with minor revision, accept with major revision, or reject.

Manuscripts accepted with major revision will be returned to the corresponding author together with the reviewers’ report.  Authors will be given a maximum of four weeks to respond to the external reviewers’ comments, make necessary changes, and resubmit the manuscript to the editorial office.  The revised manuscript and the point-by-point response of the authors will be sent to the reviewers again following the procedures as outlined for the initial review. 

The revised version of manuscripts with minor revisions will be cleared by the Editorial office and accepted for publication without sending back to the peer reviewers.

Ethics and Consent

We believe that during submission of manuscripts for publication authors agree to abide by publication requirements of the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences. The authors confirm their agreements by sending a separate and signed cover letter detailing that the manuscript is original, not plagiarized, not submitted for publication elsewhere, and will not be submitted to another publication during the review period.  The submitting author takes full responsibility for the work he or she submits to and publishes with EJHB.

Research involving human participants, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. Authors must include a statement detailing the name of the ethics committee and the reference number for ethical approval in the body of manuscripts.  Manuscripts may be rejected if the Editor considers that the research has not been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework.

For all research involving human participants, informed consent to participate in the study should be obtained from participants (or their parent or legal guardian in the case of children under 18) and a statement to this effect should appear in the manuscript. In addition, research that involves the use of clinical, biomedical, or biometric data from human participants must only be carried out with the explicit consent of those whose data are involved. Consent must be obtained without any form of coercion and with participants’ explicit understanding of the purpose for which their data will be used.

Plagiarism and Duplicate Publication

The Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences does not tolerate any form of plagiarism. Authors are expected to check their submission with a plagiarism checker and make the necessary corrections prior to submission. To prevent plagiarism, submitted manuscripts will go through a rigorous plagiarism detection process using standard software. The journal automatically rejects the submission and may also take legal action for serious cases of more than 15% of the text in a paper being copied or plagiarized from the original sources. In case plagiarism is discovered in a paper that has already been published by the journal, it will be retracted in accordance with the procedure described under Retraction policy, including blacklisting the author(s).

Competing Interests

It is the responsibility of authors to disclose any financial/other interest that may have influenced the development of the manuscript during submission. Both the editors and peer-reviewers are expected to disclose any possible conflict of interest for manuscripts they are assigned to review. If necessary, they should decline the review of such manuscripts. Disclosures must be entered directly into the submission system.

Failure to disclose a competing interest at submission may result in author sanctions. Authors must disclose any association that poses or could be reasonably perceived as posing a financial or personal competing interest in connection with the manuscript and acknowledge all funding sources supporting the work.

Authorship

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work. Authorship credits should be based only on substantial contributions to conception, design, data analysis interpretation, drafting the article, revising it critically for important intellectual content.  

Throughout submission and peer review, a single corresponding author is responsible for providing all necessary manuscript information and interactions with the editorial office. We believe that the corresponding author has obtained permission from all authors for the submission of each version of the paper and for any change in authorship.

Citations

Research articles submitted to EJHBS must cite appropriate and relevant literature in support of the claims made. Excessive self-citation, gratuitous and unnecessary citation of articles published in the journal to which the paper has been submitted, and any other form of citation manipulation are inappropriate. Any attempts by peer-reviewers or editors to encourage citation of their previous work are not acceptable. Authors should consider the following information when preparing their manuscript:

  1. any statement in the manuscript that relies on external sources of information needs citation.
  2. Authors should cite the original work rather than a review article that cites an original work,
  3. authors should ensure that their citations are accurate,
  4. authors should not cite sources that they have not read,
  5. authors should not preferentially cite their own or their friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications,
  6. authors should not use an excessive number of citations to support one point and,
  7. ideally, authors should cite sources that have undergone peer review where possible.

Confidentiality

A submitted manuscript is confidential material. Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences is committed to ensuring the integrity of the peer review process as per the guidelines of the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE). The confidentiality of manuscripts or materials submitted to the journal is strictly kept. Reviewers are also required to treat all submitted manuscripts confidentially to make the review process strictly confidential. They should not share information about the manuscript under their review with any third parties. Any breach of confidentiality during the review process will be asked as per the guideline of the COPE.

Disclosure 

The Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences requires that all authors, peer reviewers, and editors disclose all potential conflicts of interest referring to the submitted work to the journal. Authors are required to disclose any form of possible conflicts of interest.  Editors and reviewers are also required to declare any competing interests that may help the Editor-in-Chief to take appropriate action to ensure fair and neutral review. Under circumstances where there is a conflict of interest to process the submission, a guest editor would process the manuscript.

When the Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editor, or Editorial Board member submits a paper to the journal, the policy is that another Editor on the journal will make an editorial decision. In such cases, two independent peer-review comments are required.

Disclaimer

The Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Science is not responsible for the authors' expressed opinions, views, and the contents of the published manuscripts in the journal. In addition, the individual authors should take the sole responsibility for the originality, proofreading, and errors of their published manuscript.  

The EJHBS follows a double-blind peer review system.  All manuscripts submitted for review and publication in the journal go peer review for authenticity, ethical issues, and useful contributions. Decisions of the reviewers are the only tool for publication in the journal and will be final.

Copyright Policy

Once an article is accepted for publication, the author is expected to transfer the copyright of their article to the journal. Authors can use their article elsewhere after publication provided that proper acknowledgment is given to the Journal as the original source of publication. All published articles can be downloaded and used by the scientific community without further permission.  Effective with initial submissions, authors must agree that if their manuscript is accepted, they will grant EJHBS an exclusive, irrevocable license to publish their work. 

Authors who granted the journal exclusive license to publish and authors who transferred copyright to EJHBS are allowed to do the following:

  1. Use all or part of the work in compilations or other publications of the Authors,
  2. Own works (includes theses/dissertations), to use figures, photos, and tables created by them and contained in the work, to present the work orally in its entirety, and to make copies of all or part of the work for the Authors’ use for lectures, classroom instruction or similar uses. If the author is employed by an academic institution, that institution also may reproduce the article for teaching purposes,
  3. Post the accepted manuscript version of the work, the “Paper in Press,” on the author’s personal web page, their personal or institutional repository, or their funding body’s archive provided that a link to the article in the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences is included,
  4. Post a manuscript version of the work on not-for-profit preprint servers provided that the Authors retain distribution rights to the work, that EJHBS formatted final files are not posted, and that a link to the article in the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences is included,
  5. Reuse of EJHBS content must include the following: This research was originally published in the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Author(s). Title. EJHBS. Year; Vol:pp-pp. © Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Gondar.

Privacy Statement

The data collected from registered users of EJHBS falls within the scope of the standard functioning of peer-reviewed journals. It includes information that makes communication possible for the editorial process; it enables collecting aggregated data on submissions and publications. The editorial team of the EJHBS uses this data to guide its work in publishing and improving the journal. The authors who published their articles in this journal are responsible for the human subject data that figures in the reported research.

The journal requests registration with the personal data of authors and the information will not be shared with any third person/party without consultation. Personal data means any information relating to a natural person who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location, educational status, publication history, areas of expertise, and an online identifier. If you want to submit or review an article, we require online registration to provide access to the relevant information/section. Your personal data will help us contact you for specific purposes, including writing editorials, review submissions, and so on. Your personal data will not be disclosed to third parties without your consent. We will safeguard your personal data and retain it in our system.

Article Processing Charges

All articles published in our journals are open access and freely available online, immediately upon publication. This is made possible by the exclusive financial support of the University of Gondar. Hence, the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences does not request an article processing charge.

Special Issue

Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences publish both regular and Special Issue articles. Articles for both cases should fulfill all the normal requirements of the manuscript submission guideline and should be of relevance to a wide international community.  Authors should note that the same criteria of quality, originality, and significance apply to articles in Special Issues as to regular articles.

Announcement for Special Issue

At first, the Ethiopian Journal of Biomedical and Health Sciences announce the submission of articles to be published on a special issue.  Special Issues must receive initial approval from the Editorial Board before the papers are submitted. Depending on the nature of the topic of the special issue a guest editor may be assigned to handle the submission and review process.  The Editor in chief is responsible for calling for papers for the special issue and assignment of the guest editor. Guest Editors are expected to oversee the peer review process for the Special Issue but final acceptance approval for each paper will be given by the Editor-in-Chief.

Review Process and Editorial Procedure

As submissions for the Special Issue arrive directly from Authors in the online submission and review system, the Guest Editors will be able to access these and assess whether each paper is in scope for the Special Issue. The paper will then either be rejected or should be sent out for peer review. If a paper does not meet the criteria required for the Special Issue Guest Editors may reject papers without them having been sent for external peer review. The Editor-in-Chief is available to assist should there be any doubt about a course of action to take.

 For all Special Issues, please note that: The Editor-in-Chief may wish to take a first look at all papers submitted to a Special Issue and can reject papers without review on the basis of quality, originality, or significance, or ask for further revisions to be made prior to review. Double-blind peer review of each paper is carried out in the normal manner via the journal’s online submission and peer review system. Once reviews are returned the Editor will need to take a provisional decision and this will be communicated to the confirmation of the decision. 

Number of Articles in Special Issues

As a general guide, a full Special Issue should comprise approximately 6-10 articles.

Timetable

Authors should work to clear deadlines set by the Editor-in-Chief and be made aware that if they miss deadlines for submission, revisions, or return of proofs then their papers may be excluded from the Special Issue so as not to disadvantage other authors.

Manuscript Preparation

Authors should follow the author’s guideline of Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences available at the journal web sits

Language Editing Services

It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure the English are of sufficient quality to be understood. The journal may provide free and professional language editions only for articles selected for publication.

Research Misconduct

All work submitted to the Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences should be free of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. In cases of suspected or alleged misconduct, the journal automatically rejects the manuscript and may follow legal procedures including writing notification to the institution of the authors.   Misconduct constitutes a violation of this editorial policy, journal policies, publication ethics, or any applicable guidelines/policies specified by COPE, WAME, ICMJE, and STM. Any other activities that threaten/compromise the integrity of the research/publication process are potential misconduct. Suspected cases of misconduct will be investigated according

Acknowledgment

The author shall acknowledge contributions, technical help, financial support, material support, study participants, and others who contributed to the design, data collection, and analysis of the study at the end of the manuscript briefly. Please do not try to justify authorship in the acknowledgment section.

Changes in Authorship

Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences does not encourage changes to authorship, especially, after a manuscript has been processed. When an authorship dispute arises after a paper has been submitted/accepted for publication, the journals require all the authors involved to give consent for this change

Correction and Retraction of Articles

Published papers may be corrected with the authorization of the editor of the journal.  The magnitude of the correction will also be decided by the editor. Minor corrections are made directly to the original article. However, in cases of major corrections, the original article will remain unchanged, while the corrected version will also be published. Both the original and corrected version will be linked to each other. A statement indicating the reason for the major change to the article will also be published.

When necessary, retraction of articles will be done according to COPE retraction guidelines

Author Responsibilities

During manuscript submission, authors are required to complete the online form, disclose any competing interests, and acknowledge all funding sources supporting the work. The corresponding author must ensure that all authors have disclosed any competing interests.

Editor and Reviewer Responsibilities

When asked to evaluate a manuscript, reviewers and editors must disclose any association that poses a competing interest in connection with the manuscript. Referees and editors are asked to recuse themselves from handling a paper if the competing interest makes them unable to make an impartial scientific judgment or evaluation. A referee or editor who has a competing interest but believes that it does not preclude his or her making a proper judgment must disclose to the journal the nature of the interest.

Organization and Operation

The Ethiopian Journal of Heath and Biomedical Sciences shall have an office at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar. The organization of the Journal shall consist of the following structure, members, and contents.

  1. Editor-in-Chief
  2. Associate Editors
  3. Editorial Manager
  4. Editorial Board
  5. Advisory Board members
  6. Editorial Office Team, which consists of an Editor-in-Chief, Associate Editors, and Managing Editor, and an Editorial Officer
  7. Editorial policies and regulations
  8. Instruction to authors
  9. Address for all correspondences
  10. Review forms

Office Duties and Meetings

The University of Gondar is responsible for resource allocations; office facilities, stationeries, printing, communication expenses, and top-up payments for assigned people at the coordinating office. The editorial office team shall have Editor-in-Chief, secretaries, and other essential staff as may be necessary to run the day-to-day activities of the editorial office effectively and efficiently. The editorial office shall be equipped with essential office and communication facilities, plagiarism, and other software

 

The meeting of the editorial team shall be planned by the Editor-In-Chief when the need arises. There would be one ordinary meeting for the Editorial Board of the EJHBS every month. Extraordinary meetings may be convened upon the decision of the Editor-in-Chief and when the need arises.

Finance and Financial Management

The College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar shall have an Ethiopian Journal Health and Biomedical Sciences which is regularly published. The following statements shall be considered:

  1. The University shall cover all costs associated with the Journal.
  2. Individuals or institutions can subscribe to the journal at a rate that would be decided by the Editorial Board.
  3. Issues of the journal can be sold to all interested at a rate that would be fixed by the Editorial Board.
  4. The EJHBS shall carry out fund-raising activities.
  5. EJHBS may establish other income-generating projects, which are not in conflict with its fundamental objectives.
  6. For the enhancement of EJHBS’s financial management, a financial management guideline will be developed by the Editorial Board and shall be strictly adhered to.
  7. Amendment of the financial management guideline shall be submitted to the Editorial Board for approval. The financial ratification for this amendment will be done by the College Council.
  8. Internal auditing shall be carried out every six months and the report shall submit to the College Council through the approval of the College Finance Office.

Legal Matters

The Journal and other publications of EJHBS shall be published in accordance with the prevailing laws and regulations of the country. Documents, publications, or any instruments in writing require the approval of the Editor-in-Chief. The Auditor shall have access to all financial papers and documents.

Author Guidelines

Ethiopian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences (EJHBS) publishes works dealing with basic and applied research in the areas of health and biomedical sciences. The following types of publications are included:

  1. Original articles,
  2. Brief communications,
  3. Reviews,
  4. Case report,
  5. Protocols, and
  6. Letters to the editor.

In principle, a review article should not generally exceed 6000 words, and an original research article should also not exceed 4000 words, including the abstract, tables, references, and other appendices. Short/brief communication and a case report should not exceed 2000 words, including abstract, tables, and references. Letters should be brief and to the point; tables can be included, but graphs and illustrations will not normally be used. References must be kept to a minimum.

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted through the online submission system. The Journal also accepts manuscripts submitted by e-mail to EJHBS@uog.edu.et. The corresponding author should indicate the following in a covering letter:

  1. the manuscript is being submitted for consideration for publication.
  2. a manuscript with substantially the same content has not been submitted or published elsewhere.
  3. all the authors have made contributions to the study described in the manuscript and are responsible for its content.
  4. that all authors have approved the final manuscript.

Language

Manuscripts in English are accepted. Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in English. The authors should read the journal polices and instructions and strictly follow them before submitting their manuscript.

Form of Manuscript

 Manuscripts should be prepared as Microsoft-word documents in Times New Roman (font size 12) on A4 size leaving the margins of 1 inch on all four sides in a single column. The line spacing should be one and a half –spaced (1.5) including references and tables. Tables and Figures should be in their respective position in the manuscript with the title of Table/Legends of Figure.

Manuscripts should be written concisely: All pages must be numbered consecutively. Manuscripts of original reports are divided into the following sections in this order: Title page, including the title, the author(s) affiliation(s), and corresponding author, Abstract, Key Words, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, Declarations, and References. The Review, Short Communications, protocols should follow the standard method as a requirement.

Title Page

The title should contain the fewest words that adequately describe the work. The authors' names should be typed in full. The department and institution where the investigation was made, including the complete postal address, should be named. The telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address (if available) of the corresponding author should be indicated.

Abstract

Manuscripts of original papers must begin with a structured abstract of not more than 300 words. It should state the background and purposes of the study or investigation; materials and methods (basic procedures on the selection of study subjects; observational and analytical methods); results (main findings); and conclusions.

Keywords

Below the abstract, 3 to 5 keywords or short phrases that should be sufficient to describe the content of the text should be provided.

Introduction

The introduction outlines the purpose, scope, and methods of the investigation and its relation to other work in the same field.

Methods

This section should clearly describe the selection of the observational subjects; the methods, apparatus (names and addresses of manufacturers in parenthesis), and procedures; references to established methods; references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well-known. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence interval). When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or the country.

Results

Present the results of your study in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all data in the tables or illustrations, or both: emphasize or summarize only important observations.

Discussion

Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and conclusions that follow from them. Highlight the important/major findings first, then highlight the less-important findings. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction section or the Results section. Include in the Discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies. Link the conclusions with the goals of the study, but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by your data. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.

Acknowledgments

One or more statement(s) should specify:

  1. contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chairman.
  2. acknowledgments of technical help.
  3. acknowledgments of financial and material support, specifying the nature of support.
  4. financial or other relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.

Tables and Figures

All tabular materials, flow charts, etc. should be typed on separate pages of the same size as the text and should be intelligible by themselves without reference to the text. Headings should be concise, clearly present the subject matter. Footnotes to the tables should be placed below the table and designated by superscripts 1, 2, 3... Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and photographs are considered figures. The original drawings should be no larger than 16 x 22 cm with a resolution of 300 dpi. All drawings must be made with black drawing ink on tracing paper suitable for direct photocopy. Either the original or glossy prints thereof are acceptable. Photographs should be sharp glossy prints with high contrast, and three sets of such prints should be submitted. Tables and figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals, respectively, in the order of appearance in the text. They should be cited in the text as, for example, Table 3 or Figure 3.

Abbreviations and Symbols

Only standard abbreviations should be used. Abbreviations of biological terms, such as culture media, reagents, or laboratory methods, should not be used unless they are well established, or they are of advantage to the reader. Such abbreviations should be defined on their first appearance in the text.

Biological Nomenclature

Scientific names of animals, plants, and microorganisms should be in accordance with the International Codes. The scientific names in the manuscript should be in italics. The generic name is written in full in the title, on its first appearance in the text, and in the summary. Elsewhere, the initial letter of the generic name may be used if no confusion results.

Chemical Nomenclature

The nomenclature of chemical compounds should agree with indexes of Chemical Abstracts.

References

References should be cited by number in parentheses in the text in order of their appearance and listed in numerical order at the end of the manuscript. List all names of authors. References to journals and books should follow “Vancouver Style” and be written as in the following examples:

  1. Kassu A, Fujino F, Matsuda M, Nishizawa M, Ota F, Sugiura. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in antiretroviral naïve patients in north Ethiopia. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 2007; 23: 564-568.
  2. Zhang Y, Telenti A. Genetics of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. p. 235-253. In Hatfull G F, Jacob WR, (ed.), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, 2000, ASM Press, Washington, D. C.
  3. Assefa S, Berhan W. Health laboratory quality assurance, 2007, Master Printing Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Unpublished Data

Unpublished data or personal communications should not be included in the reference list but may be cited in the text, with permission for personal communications.

Short/Brief Communications

Papers in the brief form will be printed in Short/Brief Communications. They should not exceed ten double-spaced pages including figures and tables. Subdivisions of the text by headings should be avoided except for Abstract and References.

Reviews

The Review is intended to review articles dealing with current as well as historical progress made in research and policymaking in health and biomedical sciences. Teaching articles and reviews may be submitted by invitation of the editorial board.

Case Report

Papers dealing with specific clinical observations will be considered and published as case reports.

Letter to the Editor

A letter will provide opinions concerning the articles published in EJHBS. The authors of the original articles will be invited to respond to the letters commenting on their manuscripts. The letter should state the title of the article and the volume and number in which the article was published. Letters should not be divided into sections, nor should they contain a summary, figures, or tables. References (not more than 5) may be included.